The sword of Barbarroja
battled by all the Germanic Roman empire.
Emperor of the Sacred
Germanic Roman Empire (1152-1190), king of Italy (1155-1190) and with the
name of Federico III, Duke of Suabia (1147-1152, 1167-1168).
It was born in Waiblingen,
son of Federico II of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Suabia and nephew of emperor
Conrado III. He inherited of his father the Duke title, and after the death
of his uncle, in 1152, Federico Barbarroja was named king of Germania and
chosen emperor of the Sacred Germanic Roman Empire.
Photo of Barbarroja
Its main desire was to
recover the glory and the prestige of the Roman Empire. In 1154 it marched
to Italy, where lombardo in the city of Pavía received the crown of the
kingdom. The following year emperor of the Sacred Empire by Pope Adriano IV
It was able to pacify
Germany and to both limit the power of the feudales gentlemen during first
years of its reign thanks to the aid of its famous sword, but late well-known
with the name of sword of Barbarroja. For it, it fixed the center of its
policy and ambitions on the Italian Peninsula.
In 1154 Rome attacked, in
first of a series of six expeditions against Italian ground. The rebellion
finalized when Adriano IV sent I interdictate against Rome, being put under
its inhabitants and expelling to Arnaldo de Brescia, that will be executed
by Federico Barbarroja and his sword.
Sword that I use
Barbarroja in its battles.
Of return to Germany,
pacificó the territory naming to Enrique Leon Duke of Baviera and allowing
Enrique Jasomirgott to change its title of Marquess of Austria by the one of
The advice of Reinaldo
Dassel, chancellor of the Empire, made believe to the emperor who the Pope
considered vasallo of the Church, being based on an existing painting in
Letrán in which the coronation of Lotario under the inscription imagined
"El emperor is done vasallo of the Papa". The painting then was
destroyed and enemistad with the Pope began to appear again.
A deficient translation of
the letter in charge of Reinaldo Dassel made understand the emperor who the
Pope continued it considering his vasallo. Immediately the hostilities
untied and began to publish themselves written against Adriano IV,
postulating Federico I who the Papado had to be subordinated to the Empire.
Done sculpture to
Arranged Adriano IV to
excomulgar to Federico I, its death in 1519 finally prevented him to make it.
In the heat of confrontation
with Santa Sede, defended in the Diet of Roncaglia (1158) the idea of a
political authority hard carried out by the emperor of the Sacred Empire,
exerted of absolute and universal way, and with the capacity to defend and
to take part in the subjects of the Church.
The pretension to limit the
power of the Papado exclusively the spiritual sphere faced also the Pope
Alexander to him III (1159-1181), successor of Adriano IV, that supported in
1167 the creation of Liga Lombarda, which caused the expulsion of the
imperial troops of Italian territory. Federico I recognized like Pope
Calixto III (1168-1178).
In 1174 it resumed by fifth
time its attempts of expansion but it was defeated in Legnano (1176) and was
forced to accept treaties of Venice (1177) and Constanza (1183), by which it
recognized Alexander III like Pope, resigned to its pretensions of dominion
on the Pontifical States, recognized the temporary power of the Pontiff and
granted autonomy to the cities under its jurisdiction. In return, the
excomunión pain rose to him.
However, its hegemony on
extensive territories in the north of Italy followed unquestionable, having
annexed Burgundy by means of marriage in the 1156 and tie to the Empire
region of Sicily thanks to the wedding (1186) of its son Enrique with
Constanza, daughter of the king of that one territory. Federico Barbarroja
died drowned in 1190 when trying cross a river Saleph, during Third Crossed
undertaken against Saladino.