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CRISTOBAL COLÓN.

 

The sword of Cristobal Colon accompanied to him in its famous trips.

 

Although its origin has been object of the diverse speculations, seems to exist a greater agreement in considering than it was born in Genoa in an indetermine date between the 25 of August and the 31 of October of 1451, son of Domeneghino Colombo and Susanna Fontanarossa.

It is possible also that not outside the first-born, passing away its older brothers. It had in addition two small brothers, Bartholomew, one or two years younger, and Diego. 

Her family, without being rich, had certain arrangement, due to the business of looms that the father showed and to the complementary income that a small cheese commerce tried. 

From very young, Cristóbal demonstrated that it did not have intentions to stay bound to the manual offices and began to prove luck in the sea. The childhood of Columbus, like its date and birthplace, also appears surrounded in nebula. The same Admiral indicates that from very young he learned the office of the sea, without a doubt encouraged by the marine character of the city of Genoa and the boiling of the Mediterranean commerce that flooded the city. 

It seems to be that to eighteen years service was to of privateer French Guillaume de Casenove, who besieged the venecianas ships that dealt with Flandes by the Atlantic, towards 1470. In the decade of 1470, Columbus crossed the Mediterranean Sea, arriving until the island of Quío and to waters of Tunisia. 

Soon it traveled until England, from where it made a passage to Iceland. To its return one settled down in Portugal and it was dedicated, next to its brother Bartholomew, to draw charts to sell them in Lisbon. 

Image of Cristobal Colón.

The Colonos tied to important geographers of the time like Fernäo Martins or Paolo of the Pozzo Toscanelli.

It is in Lisbon where Columbus will know his woman, Felipa Moniz de Perestrello, of noble and famous family. During these years, Cristóbal Columbus was dedicated to the commerce and had to deal with marine people, who without a doubt would count histories on the earth existence beyond the sea, on strange objects or trunks found floating and on shipwrecks in remote coasts and strangers until then. 

At this same time (1481), Columbus had the opportunity to know the Portuguese factories in the coasts Africa. Doubt that does not fit all these trips will grant to Columbus one credited experience in the navigation arts, as well as a vast knowledge of the geography of the time. 

In the mentality of scientists and navigators of end of century XV diverse ideas and conceptions exist already that give to foot to the belief of Columbus in a western route towards the Indians of especiería - the Asian east shorter and other people's to the danger that the piracy and the Turks suppose. The Mediterranean is at that time a too narrow and dangerous sea, where enemy and pirate nations of all class make difficult or prevent the route that takes towards the rich producing Eastern countries of spices and exotic products. 

The western route by sea, safer than the passage terrestrial and faster than the marine one bordering the south of Africa, already exploded by the Portuguese, becomes gradually in the middle of century XV a center of speculations, forming itself in a certain belief on which every time more data are accumulated.

The conviction of Columbus in the possibility of establishing a western ocean line could be based on the conversations that supposedly would maintain with sailors as much in the Port of Santa Maria like in Murcia, which they would assure to have known distant coasts after being dragged by the weather. 

swords of Cristobal Colón.

The Portuguese dynamism as far as its explorations by Africa, fomented from the crown, is a well-known question at the time, which without a doubt animates to Columbus to present/display its project to the Portuguese cut. 

It asks for to the king the equipación of three carabelas with food supplies and merchandises to deal, to be armed to horseman and Admiral and Governor of the discovered territories and to adjudge a ten percent of the economic benefit that is obtained from new earth and to participate with a eighth in each boat that dealt with the found countries. 

The Portuguese stage of Columbus culminated in 1485, when, rejected his project by a commission designated by king Juan II and died his wife, it was transferred to Spain next to his son. The certain thing is that his brother Bartholomew offers the project to Enrique VIII of England, that also rejects it. 

Refugee by the franciscanos of the convent of the Rábida in the neighborhoods of the Wood port, and helped by the ex- confesor of queen Isabel the Catholic, fray Juan Perez, Columbus presented/displayed his project to Kings Cato'licos, who, after two rejections, in April of 1492 granted the Capitulations to him of Santa FE.  Shortly before had had their second son, Hernando, fruit of the union with Beatriz Enríquez de Arana. 

Aside from the economic gains, the idea of Columbus reunited in itself great aspirations of the Christian world of the time, as the direct commerce with East, the contact with the mysterious Christian kingdoms of Preste Juan and the closing to the ideal of Crossed the definitive taking of Jerusalem. 

In the meantime he deliberated myself in the cut of Isabel and Fernando, after the first refusal, Bartholomew Columbus has happened to France, where he offers the plan of his brother to Ana de Beaujeu, he runs during the minority of age of Carlos VIII. In France too much credit to the project will not be lent either. 

The deliberations in the Castilian cut lasted several years, during which Columbus despite was maintained by indication of Corona. The negotiation finalizes the 17 of April of 1492, giving rise to the Capitulations of Santa Fe. In them one determines that Columbus and his heirs will show the position of Admiral in all the territories who could discover, receiving fifth of the merchandise; one also names virrey and governor of discovered earth, with being able to name civil employees; it will receive the tenth part of the conquered or acquired treasures and will exert of judge in whichever commercial questions were possible to be provoked; it will be able to participate with a eighth in any commercial expedition that was undertaken, obtaining therefore a eighth of the benefits. 

He compares himself thus to Columbus in rank with the Admiral of Castile, with such privileges and Mercedes, and his son Diego is named paje of the prince Don Juan.

The 30 of April of 1492 the kings send a letter to Woods in which they order the two construction of carabelas which they will previously put to the service of Columbus, like payment or contracted punishment. 

Same Columbus moves to the locality to form the crew, finding reluctance until Juan takes part fray Perez and the famous sailor Martín Alonso Pinzón enlists itself, offering one carabela own. With him their brothers also enlist themselves Francisco Martinez and Vicente Yáñez Pinzón and the pilot Juan of the Thing. 

Carabelas with which Cristobal Columbus I conquer America.

Armed carabelas Pinto, Young and nao Santamaría, they leave the port the dawn of the 3 August 1492, going to the Canary Islands, where they will arrive later. The duration of the passage begins to irritate to the crew, arising revolt threats that are stopped by Columbus lying on the whole range and promising gifts. 

The situation begins desperate when Rodrigo de Triana sighted earth the 12 of October, having to be arrived at the Guahaní island (San Salvador, Watling). During this trip it made in addition explorations during three months by other near islands, to which the Spanish baptized like Juana (Cuba) and (Haiti). In this one it seems to be that it had the first contact with a native head, Guacanagari, that gave gold objects to him.

The passage towards the Indians, in whom Columbus even believed firmly, did not appear by any part. It seems to be that the penalties and the arrogant character of Columbus pushed the crew to rebel themselves, to which badly added a strong storm and been of the ships.

Once concluded the trip that allowed Columbus to arrive at American coasts, it continued making companies for the crown of Spain. Nevertheless, in spite of to have undertaken three trips towards America and being recognized more like a great navigator and explorer, never it would get to know that it had reached a unknown continent after the European of that then. 

Also, it had to face many problems, as much with the crown as with the first settlers of the island the Spanish, due to its incompetencia like administrator and governor of the new possessions.

 

Monument to Cristobal Colon Located in the port of Barcelona.

Saddened and melancholic, Columbus sees next his death, dictating testament in favor of his children, brothers and of Beatriz Enríquez de Harana, woman with whom shared part of her life and mother of her Hernando son. 

The 20 of May of 1506 die aquejado of drop and other diseases in the city of Valladolid, without knowing that in his exploration it had given with a continent unknown until then by European of his time and to which will occur the name of America, fruit of an ambiguity when assigning its discovery to Américo Vespuccio.

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