The sword of Cristobal
Colon accompanied to him in its famous trips.
Although its origin has been object
of the diverse speculations, seems to exist a greater agreement in
considering than it was born in Genoa in an indetermine date between the 25
of August and the 31 of October of 1451, son of Domeneghino Colombo and
It is possible also that not
outside the first-born, passing away its older brothers. It had in addition
two small brothers, Bartholomew, one or two years younger, and Diego.
Her family, without being
rich, had certain arrangement, due to the business of looms that the father
showed and to the complementary income that a small cheese commerce tried.
From very young, Cristóbal
demonstrated that it did not have intentions to stay bound to the manual
offices and began to prove luck in the sea. The childhood of Columbus, like
its date and birthplace, also appears surrounded in nebula. The same Admiral
indicates that from very young he learned the office of the sea, without a
doubt encouraged by the marine character of the city of Genoa and the
boiling of the Mediterranean commerce that flooded the city.
It seems to be that to
eighteen years service was to of privateer French Guillaume de Casenove, who
besieged the venecianas ships that dealt with Flandes by the Atlantic,
towards 1470. In the decade of 1470, Columbus crossed the Mediterranean Sea,
arriving until the island of Quío and to waters of Tunisia.
Soon it traveled until
England, from where it made a passage to Iceland. To its return one settled
down in Portugal and it was dedicated, next to its brother Bartholomew, to
draw charts to sell them in Lisbon.
Image of Cristobal Colón.
The Colonos tied to
important geographers of the time like Fernäo Martins or Paolo of the Pozzo
It is in Lisbon where
Columbus will know his woman, Felipa Moniz de Perestrello, of noble and
famous family. During these years, Cristóbal Columbus was dedicated to the
commerce and had to deal with marine people, who without a doubt would count
histories on the earth existence beyond the sea, on strange objects or
trunks found floating and on shipwrecks in remote coasts and strangers until
At this same time (1481),
Columbus had the opportunity to know the Portuguese factories in the coasts
Africa. Doubt that does not fit all these trips will grant to Columbus one
credited experience in the navigation arts, as well as a vast knowledge of
the geography of the time.
In the mentality of
scientists and navigators of end of century XV diverse ideas and conceptions
exist already that give to foot to the belief of Columbus in a western route
towards the Indians of especiería - the Asian east shorter and other
people's to the danger that the piracy and the Turks suppose. The
Mediterranean is at that time a too narrow and dangerous sea, where enemy
and pirate nations of all class make difficult or prevent the route that
takes towards the rich producing Eastern countries of spices and exotic
The western route by sea,
safer than the passage terrestrial and faster than the marine one bordering
the south of Africa, already exploded by the Portuguese, becomes gradually
in the middle of century XV a center of speculations, forming itself in a
certain belief on which every time more data are accumulated.
The conviction of Columbus in the
possibility of establishing a western ocean line could be based on the
conversations that supposedly would maintain with sailors as much in the
Port of Santa Maria like in Murcia, which they would assure to have known
distant coasts after being dragged by the weather.
swords of Cristobal Colón.
The Portuguese dynamism as
far as its explorations by Africa, fomented from the crown, is a well-known
question at the time, which without a doubt animates to Columbus to present/display
its project to the Portuguese cut.
It asks for to the king the
equipación of three carabelas with food supplies and merchandises to deal,
to be armed to horseman and Admiral and Governor of the discovered
territories and to adjudge a ten percent of the economic benefit that is
obtained from new earth and to participate with a eighth in each boat that
dealt with the found countries.
The Portuguese stage of
Columbus culminated in 1485, when, rejected his project by a commission
designated by king Juan II and died his wife, it was transferred to Spain
next to his son. The certain thing is that his brother Bartholomew offers
the project to Enrique VIII of England, that also rejects it.
Refugee by the franciscanos
of the convent of the Rábida in the neighborhoods of the Wood port, and
helped by the ex- confesor of queen Isabel the Catholic, fray Juan Perez,
Columbus presented/displayed his project to Kings Cato'licos, who, after two
rejections, in April of 1492 granted the Capitulations to him of Santa FE.
Shortly before had had their second son, Hernando, fruit of the union with
Beatriz Enríquez de Arana.
Aside from the economic
gains, the idea of Columbus reunited in itself great aspirations of the
Christian world of the time, as the direct commerce with East, the contact
with the mysterious Christian kingdoms of Preste Juan and the closing to the
ideal of Crossed the definitive taking of Jerusalem.
In the meantime he
deliberated myself in the cut of Isabel and Fernando, after the first
refusal, Bartholomew Columbus has happened to France, where he offers the
plan of his brother to Ana de Beaujeu, he runs during the minority of age of
Carlos VIII. In France too much credit to the project will not be lent
The deliberations in the
Castilian cut lasted several years, during which Columbus despite was
maintained by indication of Corona. The negotiation finalizes the 17 of
April of 1492, giving rise to the Capitulations of Santa Fe. In them one
determines that Columbus and his heirs will show the position of Admiral in
all the territories who could discover, receiving fifth of the merchandise;
one also names virrey and governor of discovered earth, with being able to
name civil employees; it will receive the tenth part of the conquered or
acquired treasures and will exert of judge in whichever commercial questions
were possible to be provoked; it will be able to participate with a eighth
in any commercial expedition that was undertaken, obtaining therefore a
eighth of the benefits.
He compares himself thus to
Columbus in rank with the Admiral of Castile, with such privileges and
Mercedes, and his son Diego is named paje of the prince Don Juan.
The 30 of April of 1492 the kings
send a letter to Woods in which they order the two construction of carabelas
which they will previously put to the service of Columbus, like payment or
Same Columbus moves to the
locality to form the crew, finding reluctance until Juan takes part fray
Perez and the famous sailor Martín Alonso Pinzón enlists itself, offering
one carabela own. With him their brothers also enlist themselves Francisco
Martinez and Vicente Yáñez Pinzón and the pilot Juan of the Thing.
Carabelas with which
Cristobal Columbus I conquer America.
Armed carabelas Pinto, Young
and nao Santamaría, they leave the port the dawn of the 3 August 1492,
going to the Canary Islands, where they will arrive later. The duration of
the passage begins to irritate to the crew, arising revolt threats that are
stopped by Columbus lying on the whole range and promising gifts.
The situation begins
desperate when Rodrigo de Triana sighted earth the 12 of October, having to
be arrived at the Guahaní island (San Salvador, Watling). During this trip
it made in addition explorations during three months by other near islands,
to which the Spanish baptized like Juana (Cuba) and (Haiti). In this one it
seems to be that it had the first contact with a native head, Guacanagari,
that gave gold objects to him.
The passage towards the
Indians, in whom Columbus even believed firmly, did not appear by any part.
It seems to be that the penalties and the arrogant character of Columbus
pushed the crew to rebel themselves, to which badly added a strong storm and
been of the ships.
Once concluded the trip that allowed
Columbus to arrive at American coasts, it continued making companies for the
crown of Spain. Nevertheless, in spite of to have undertaken three trips
towards America and being recognized more like a great navigator and
explorer, never it would get to know that it had reached a unknown continent
after the European of that then.
Also, it had to face many
problems, as much with the crown as with the first settlers of the island
the Spanish, due to its incompetencia like administrator and governor of the
Monument to Cristobal
Colon Located in the port of Barcelona.
Saddened and melancholic,
Columbus sees next his death, dictating testament in favor of his children,
brothers and of Beatriz Enríquez de Harana, woman with whom shared part of
her life and mother of her Hernando son.
The 20 of May of 1506 die
aquejado of drop and other diseases in the city of Valladolid, without
knowing that in his exploration it had given with a continent unknown until
then by European of his time and to which will occur the name of America,
fruit of an ambiguity when assigning its discovery to Américo Vespuccio.