Jinetas swords or ginetas are the direct, clear and rich inheritance but
of the panoply hispanoarabe. The jineta sword is most well-known like
hispanoarabe, used by the Muslims in the peninsula from century XIII,
later the jineta sword was made and used by the Christians from the XV.
During these two centuries, the jineta sword par excellence got to be the
Muslim weapon, made mainly in Granada to be used against the Christians.
Century XI was full of events that put in danger the War Muslim Santa in
our peninsula. The Muslim power of Mohamed I of Granada in Hispania was
being in danger, and the arrival of aids of North Africa had to be
reinforced with men new and new strategies single-breasted uniform jackets.
The new men would be "zenetes" of the berberisca tribe of the
Benimerín, that soon would have to be called riders, and the new strategy
it would be the complete change of the concept to fight, that would come
to introduce great variations in the horse harnesses and horseman. This
new and important strategy was the form to fight "to jineta".
The Zenetes brought the sword jineta, a weapon of smaller weight and
length and seemed in width to the Christian sword of the time.
This new form battle, came to change the weight that the horse would have
to support during the fight, reducing the weight of the swords and the
clothes of defenses, as well as the length of the stirrups, since on these
it was developed to the new technique battle when supporting on them all
the jinetas swords took control the taking of Granada.
concept of the war changed in years, just as it changed the military
clothes. It was necessary to obtain to fast movements and clear agility in
the fight. Zenetes had introduced the short stirrup and had lightened of
weight their defenses doing at the same time the shortest and manageable
sword. The technique of fight of the African accepted by the Hispanic-Muslims,
finished being also accepted by the Christians after the battle of Elvira
Mountain range in 1431.
Two types of swords jinetas existed: those to fight, almost free of
decoration, and those of luxury embellished with all class of adornments
like the damascene work, the nielloed one, the gilded one, the enamel, the
filigree, etc. Due to their quality and peculiarity (they do not arrive
altogether at the ten) the swords jinetas universally are considered and
admired. In Spain they are the three museums that lodge them; the one of
the troops, that two units have, the one of San Telmo of San Sebastian and
the Archaeological of the National.
The manufacture of the jineta sword began in Granada in century XIII,
nevertheless exist data that leave the sufficiently clear thing that the
swords jinetas also were done in Toledo. In the battle of Elvira Mountain
range in 1431 (we return to remember that Granada is not reconquered until
1492, while Toledo it had been in 1085), highly was recognized by the
Christians the effectiveness of this Arab sword and its fast way to use it.
Since then and until end of the same century that was organized the copy
of the jineta sword in Toledo, the Christian craftsmen of the swords had
tried the change of model of swords for the war, approaching the model of
the Arab sword copying their characteristics; a straight leaf of double
edge, enough narrows and light, and complex tripartite grip. But it seems
that most of the conserved sword blades they are not the original ones but
later, even added with the mark of the trigger, it marks typical of the
swords of Toledo.
sword of diferent models.
but characteristic of the swords jinetas, that gives individuality them,
is their grips, of magnifies decoration. This has taken to consider that
most of these swords jinetas, is cutting weapons. The grips of the swords
jinetas have a guard with quillon very curved that embraces the starting
of the leaf, whereas their sides decorate with openwork's or animal heads.
The fist consists of three parts, hopeless with pommel spherical and, that
as well, this ending with an extended button.
The case of the sword is of covered leather wood with a trimming composed
of mouth, two clips for a traditional suspension by means of shoulder belt
hung of the shoulder (according to they show paintings of the Alhambra)
and tip. The mouth of the case and quillon match so that the case sword
increases the effect decorative disguising the union. In the decoration of
grip and case they abound the golden bronze, the gold silver, filigrees,
the ivory incrustations and the enamels. And often they appear
inscriptions with mottos as "single God is winning".
Who had a jineta sword belonged to social status very high then was
considered symbol of being able between sultans and Arab Emirs. A single
Christian could carry the jineta sword if he received like gift of some
Emir or Muslim king or another very important personage.
But already in century XV, and while Granada is still in being able Muslim,
they begin to appear between the Christian swords jinetas, that if booties
were not military, were swords of done in Toledo after initiate the copy
of the model of jineta sword of Granada